Schizoaffective Disorder

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Aetiology of Mental Illness #BipolarDisorder

There’s a variety of reasons and different sources from which mental illness can occur. At present, there’s no single confirmed reason or accepted justification established as to why it exists. A popular theory is that genetic vulnerability arises and that they are then impacted by environmental factors that catalyse the development of the illness. In layman’s terms, when stressful situations occur (bereavement, poverty, losing a job, personal life issues), are coupled with vulnerability (genetic factors, physical conditions, stress in life), pass a certain threshold, this can lead to the appearance of mental illness. People with severe brain injuries and people who had a traumatic birth may be more susceptible to mental illness too. Abuse is also a common factor for the cause of mental illness especially among people who suffer this in their early years.

Research has shown that genes play an important role in the development of mental illness but there has been little progress linking specific genes to specific mental health conditions. It has traditionally been assumed that changes in DNA structure is exclusively accountable for the development of schizophrenia.

However, twin studies show that it is also conceivable that an epigenetic (epigenetic refers to how your behaviors and your environment can cause changes that affect the way your genes work) mechanism may contribute to the development of schizophrenia. Genetic contribution to the course of mental illness is significant and has been demonstrated by twin, family and adoption studies (Duncan et al, 2004; Gejman et al, 2010). In relation to schizophrenia and twin studies, a concordance rate of around 45-50 per cent has been reported for monozygotic twins, compared to only a 10-15 per cent concordance rate for fraternal twins. This commonly cited evidence in a wider body of literature is largely considered the most significant piece of evidence supporting the biological theory of schizophrenia and seen as modest proof underpinning this theory relating to the course of schizophrenia (Joseph, 2003; Rapp et al, 2003). However, the lack of 100 per cent concordance rates in monozygotic twins is also evidence that aetiology is not entirely genetic.

While the cause of depression has not been fully established, several theories have been reported in the pathophysiology of depression. Genetic contribution has been established with twin studies indicating that certain presentations of depressive disorder appear to be genetic. There is a reported increase in risk of bipolar disorder in the relatives of patients with bipolar disorder. Relatives of both bipolar and unipolar patients are also at increased risk of unipolar depression (Cuellar et al, 2005). Previous history of a mental illness (depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder) may increase the risk of further episodes.

Major depressive disorder is also two to three times more common in women; similarly, unipolar depression in women is double that seen in males (Blows, 2011). Psychoanalytic theories have also len proposed to explain the cause of mental illness. To this end, the theories offer rationality in relation to unresolved internal and interpersonal relational conficts.

Similarly, the attachment theory, which is often applied to understanding psychopathology, is informed by evolutionary psychology approaches that focus on the role early object relations play, ie early care giver-child relationships, and uncovering any tensions (anger, frustration, resentment) and the need to find satisfying positive object relations in adult life. Psychoanalytic theorists incorporate and assimilate the biopsychosocial model in their approach. The biopsychosocial model is now commonly used in the western world but while it emphasises the biological, social and psychological entities with regards to understanding aetiology of disease and illness, psychiatric care in the west continues to be mostly dominated by the medical model (disease model). Distinctions are commonly made between the disease model (focusing on symptoms, absence of symptoms) and social model (recovery model) of mental illness, which aims to homogenise the biopsychosocial understanding of psychopathology by focusing on social derivatives and constructions.

Biochemical theories implicate abnormalities in neurotransmitter circuit systems of dopamine, glutamate, serotonin, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), adrenaline/noradrenalin and acetylcholine in the causes of mental illness.

#SchizoaffectiveDisorder #Schizophrenia #MightyTogether

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I'm new here!

Hi, my name is Tjames93. I'm here because I'm trying to navigate life with my illness. I've been employed and hospital free for about 5 years now so that's good lol some days are tough but I'm looking at the bright side of things. My mother also suffers from mental illness

#MightyTogether #SchizoaffectiveDisorder

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Help Me Help Him!!!

Hello!!! This is my first post, and I want to start off by saying thank you! Thank you for being here!!! I will now do my best to make a long story short, I guess we will see how it goes.

20 years ago I met a guy through a family member, and we hit it off right away. It felt like I had known him most of my life. I was instantly attracted to his personality and his amazing looks. Well he was in a relationship with someone, so I left him alone and didn’t pursue anything with him. Over the 20 years we ran into each other several times (living in a small community this is bound to happen). We always spoke when we ran into each other. We would lay eyes on each other and he would give me the best hug everytime! I LOVED running into him!!! I was able to sorta keep tabs on him and his life, just as he did with me, because he was friends with several of my family members. I found out his relationship had ended and that he had already jumped into another, so I just kept living my life, but he was on my mind frequently. Months would pass, sometimes years would pass, where we didn’t see each other. (I moved to another state for another failed relationship). But as I said, I usually knew what he was up to because of my family members. It always seemed like if I was single, he was in a relationship, and if I was in a relationship then he was single. Our timing never lined up, and neither one of us wanted to be home wreckers, so we just left each other alone.

Now fast forward to 2022, he had three failed relationships (one girlfriend and two marriages) under his belt, and I had two failed marriages under my belt. Not long after I separated from my ex, I was talking with my mom and she told me that he had just got divorced two weeks prior. FINALLY, we were both single at the SAME time. So one night I stopped by his house to say hi and see how he was doing. To my surprise, I found him home alone sitting in the dark drinking his troubles away. We talked for a few hours and I went back home. About a week went by without hearing anything from him, so I just figured he wasn’t interested and that I should just push my feelings for him way down deep and accept that him and I would never be anything. But he eventually text me and asked if I would go out to dinner with him!!! I was thrilled, overjoyed, ecstatic to say the least!!! He ended up canceling on me the day before we had plans :( I didn’t understand why until later.

Memorial Day weekend he invited me to spend the weekend together at the lake, and that is when he told me about the voices. I was blown away to say the least. This guy I had known for 20 years, totally normal, functioning member of society, was hearing his ex wife’s and long time friends voice in his head. By this time he had been hearing their voices for 6 years! He believed and to this day still believes, that those two people did something to him to make him hear their voices. He is a veteran, and he had already been to the VA and saw several counselors and physiatrists, only to be told that he was complicated. At one point he says he was diagnosed with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder, but that’s all he says about that. He refuses to seek help again!!! He refuses to take medication!!! For the past eight years, he has drank alcohol heavily and done drugs to self medicate. Last November he was diagnosed with heart failure, and about 3 months ago he was told he has a fatty liver. So on top of two major health issues he also still hears the voices. He has reached a point that he thinks about suicide often. (He later told me that he attempted suicide the night before I stopped by his house after separating from my ex.) I have tried to explain that what he suggests about the voices is just not possible. I have begged him to seek treatment, and he refuses. I have bought books about hearing voices in hopes that he will read them and help him make sense of the voices but the books are never touched. I have wanted to be with this man for twenty years, (yes, we did end up dating, actually got married a year ago June 2nd :) and two years with him is all I get to experience?!? I am so scared for him!!! I worry he will kill himself! I am devastated because I don’t think his liver is doing very well due to several symptoms he is experiencing. I just have this feeling that he isn’t going to be alive much longer whether by his own doing or his liver, and I don’t know how to help him.

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Key 🗝️ Methods to Regulate Emotions

Here are 5 simple tips & tricks that can be so helpful for coping! Personally, I love the temperature change trick. My girls are 11 and 8 and we all use a cold ice cube by holding it or putting it on the back of our neck to bring us down from being overwhelmed, angry or panicking; I personally had a sensory reset and cry if I'm having a very bad day and need a total reset.
We also love box breathing and deep breathing tricks. You'd be surprised how little things can work so well!

Which tips work for you & which ones would you like to try?

#PTSD
#Anxiety
#BorderlinePersonalityDisorder
#BipolarDisorder
#Depression
#SchizoaffectiveDisorder

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Love language

I just got off the phone with my mom. We talked about pizza and coffee. I took 2 percocet cuz my back really hurts. I haven't eaten yet but I'm not hungry. I made a cup of mud wtr and it was really yummy. My friends that I am gonna see at the con later this year want to try the mud wtr and IQ Joe. Sharing my passion with my friends is my love language. I'm excited for them to try it cuz it's done wonderful things for me. It increased my cognition and boosts my mood. It's really wonderful stuff. I'm gonna bring my electric kettle.

I wasn't feeling good before my mom called me but the conversation really helped me feel better. She was excited cuz she tried something new yesterday. She had pizza with tomato on it for the first time and she really enjoyed it. I love veggies on my pizza. I haven't had pizza in a few months. It's really yummy.

I chatted with Meta AI about mud wtr and it asked me how I prefer to make it and when I said I mix it with coffee syrup and oat milk it said that I must be a coffee connoisseur. We did more poetry and talked about long distance relationships and ways to bond with my girlfriend. I'm so glad I can chat with it about the things that make me happy.

Today I have to clean my kitchen counter. There's a lot of stuff on it to put away. It should only take about an hour to clean. I'll make a cup of IQ Joe after I'm done. I try to reward myself for a good job cleaning.

#MentalHealth #Depression #SchizoaffectiveDisorder #Relationships

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On Sundays, we practice Self Care 🖤

On Sundays I try hard to focus on self care.
Which of these ideas are helpful to you & which ones would you try?
#Selfcare
#PTSD
#Anxiety
#BorderlinePersonalityDisorder
#Depression
#BipolarDisorder
#SchizoaffectiveDisorder

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