Neurodevelopmental Disorders

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    Laura Smith

    The Infinite Possibilities Disability Inclusion in Schools Can Bring

    Do you have a child with a disability? If you do, I’m almost positive that at some point in this parenting journey you have felt the pain of wanting them to be happy and included. Do you have a child without a disability? Have you ever been sad when your child felt left out? If you have, I can confidently say to multiply that feeling by infinity and you’ll have a small understanding of how awful it feels when your child with a disability is excluded. Infinity. Infinity. My daughter Ashlynn is now 12 and started middle school. She’s only ever been invited to one peer’s birthday parties. Despite being happy and kind with a smile so bright it could rival the sun, it’s always been a struggle for her to be included. A natural-born socialite, Ashlynn was born with disabilities that have effectively worked as barriers between her and her desire to be social. How much does she long to feel included? I can’t really say for sure but anything I can imagine I’m sure we can multiply by… infinity. Infinity. Infinity. Inclusion is not something new. Disability advocates including special education staff and others have been trying to do this successfully for decades. Though we’ve come farther than when I was in high school, where the kids in special education only had a hallway and never attended general education classes, simply sticking them in general education classes wasn’t including them either. As time went on, we have been learning. Inclusion is not just a place. If it were, kids on the outside would have long been included by now. True inclusion is really a culture. It’s in a culture of people who all viscerally buy into this idea that everyone matters. It’s a culture of many many people beyond disability and diversity advocates who accept we all have way more in common than we do not. So what are the possibilities of an entire culture of people practicing inclusion? I’m no expert, but I think the answer is probably infinity. Infinity. Infinity. That leads me to this new middle school my daughter Ashlynn is at this year. Even just walking through the doors, one gets the sense that this building houses a culture of inclusivity. It’s literally written in signs on the walls and throughout the building. In the girls’ bathroom, positive affirmation notes are hung above the mirrors. I remember washing my hands and wondering if instead of hating my reflection every day as a middle schooler how it might have helped to then read a positive affirmation above it? In hallways, inspirational messages are posted throughout like this one from Eckhart Tolle that reads: “Some changes look negative on the surface, but you will soon realize that space is being created in your life for something new to emerge.” Middle school is full of so many changes. Changes to our bodies, our cognition, and our way of navigating the world. Imagine a child going through that but reading that sign above Ashlynn every day. Could it change how they feel? I don’t really know for sure, but even if it helped one child, it’s worth it. Who knows how many that child would go on to help? Maybe the answer is more like infinity. Infinity. Infinity. Ashlynn has thrived in her sixth-grade year, being included in general education, track, and basketball. Her science teacher modifies her school work on his own. He takes responsibility himself for scaffolding her work instead of relying on the special education teacher. The dean of students who helps with traffic flow in the morning took to Ashlynn “helping” her do traffic duty. Every morning Ashlynn happily smiles and waves on the cars alongside the dean. It would be impossible not to notice how Ashlynn is being included every morning by teachers, parents and students alike. You know what this fosters? Inclusion times infinity. Infinity. Infinity. The year culminated into something called the first annual “Inclusion Spirit Week.” Excuse me? I’ve worked in special education since 2004 and I’ve never ever heard of anything like this. To make it work though, all members of the community had to believe in and practice inclusion, because as I said, inclusion is not a place, it’s a culture. It’s a culture like Spirit Week for school pride! It’s a culture like team spirit. It takes a collective group of people, disabled and non-disabled, advocates and non-advocates who truly believe inclusion matters. To be clear, inclusion week was not just about kids with disabilities. I’m writing about it because my child happens to have one. The week had themes of not letting anyone sit alone, how to be a friend when you see someone sitting alone, and more. The assembly featured games and incorporated all members of the student body participating in games against the teachers. That’s where Ashlynn came in. She was on a basketball team of students working to get more baskets in one minute than the teachers. She was paired with a peer buddy who helped her alongside other general education students working to defeat the teachers. How much did this mean to her? Well to quote Buzz Lightyear, I’m pretty sure it was “to infinity and beyond.” Infinity. Infinity. I don’t say it lightly when I tell you that Ashlynn’s new school has been nothing short of amazing. Reading, writing, and math are important, but so are kindness and mental health. This school offers all of that. What’s the name of such an amazing school,  you might ask? Well, it’s none other than Infinity Middle School. Our gratitude overflows. My husband bawled through the entire assembly. The only way to describe happiness like that is nothing shorter than infinity.

    Community Voices

    One thing that scared me the most

    It's important to remember that most people with mental health and neurodevelopmental disorders are more likely to be victims than being perpetrators.

    One thing that scared me is I watched murder mysteries, Most Evil and those documentaries explains how delusions motivate those types of serial killers. Most of those serial killers were found NGRI, but some of those killers where found guilty at first, after some time in prison, their delusions became worse and they were also found NGRI as well. I think it's because to be a serial killer, you need to be very intelligent and especially to cover your tracks, and another reason why some of those killers were found guilty at first, it is because they seem to know right from wrong, by the judge asking simple questions, if they understand the charges, some of those delusional killers said that they do, but were later found NGRI after being found sane. Another thing that scared me is slander case, one of them were found guilty, but I heard they they were also civility committed.

    It's like an isolated link between specific types of mental health and criminal behavior. Because, there is such thing as Insanity defence, incompetence, diminished capacity.

    The scary thing is that when I watched documentaries of people becoming serial killers, they start to have a fixed, false belief of whom they are targeting and why. I asked my mom why when people kill three or more innocent people, something about their beliefs is delusional, and she explained to me that they have personality disorders that causes delusional thinking and that no one without those types of personality disorders would want to do that to innocent people.

    Those personality disorders are Antisocial Personality Disorder and Narcissistic Personality Disorder, with symptom of delusions.

    Those serial killers that got NGRI were diagnosed with personality disorders, with delusions as a symptom.

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    Community Voices

    ADHD Combined Type

    Do you feel having ADHD Combined Type mostly helps or mostly makes your daily level of neurological functioning worse? I’ve found that in my 30’s it feel almost impossible to hide my symptoms and it’s terrifying and beyond frustrating to function despite some medication changes. I just want to function😔 #ADHD

    Community Voices

    Mental health, developmental health and criminal behaviors

    To say that mental health and neurodevelopmental disorders is not the cause for criminal behaviors is too broad.

    Short answer is that most mental health and neurodevelopmental disorders is not the cause for criminal behaviors, but long answer is that mental health and neurodevelopmental disorders is the cause for criminal behaviors, but it depends on what mental health and neurodevelopmental disorders we are talking about.

    The problem is that there are a lot of mental health and neurodevelopental disorders and each mental health and neurodevelopmental disorders are not the same to each other.

    Statistically, most people with mental health and neurodevelopmental disorders are more likely to be victims than being perpetrators. There are however small-subgroup of people with mental health and neurodevelopmental disorders that commit crimes.

    There are however some mental disorders that is related to criminal behaviors, it includes specific command hallucinations, specific delusions of paranoid and grandiose themes, and Erotomania, specific pathological jealousy , but criminal behaviors is more related to Distributive, Impulsive Control and Conduct Disorders, especially Antisocial Personality Disorder, Narcissistic Personality Disorder and specific Paraphilic Disorders. About Bipolar Disorder, criminal behaviors is more associated with Distributive, Impulsive Control and Conduct Disorders, and specific Paraphilic Disorders. Symptoms of Bipolar Disorder includes impulsively and risky behaviors.

    About Communication Disorders and Autism Spectrum Disorder, criminal behaviors in Communication Disorders and Autism Spectrum Disorder is mostly related to lack of social skills, not out of maliciousness or sadism.

    Statistically, most people with mental health and neurodevelopmental disorders are more likely to be victims than being perpetrators. There are however small-subgroup of people with mental health and neurodevelopmental disorders that commit crimes.

    There are however some mental disorders that is related to criminal behaviors, it includes specific command hallucinations, specific delusions of paranoid and grandiose themes, and Erotomania, specific pathological jealousy , but criminal behaviors is more related to Distributive, Impulsive Control and Conduct Disorders, especially Antisocial Personality Disorder, Narcissistic Personality Disorder and specific Paraphilic Disorders. About Bipolar Disorder, criminal behaviors is more associated with Distributive, Impulsive Control and Conduct Disorders, and specific Paraphilic Disorders. Symptoms of Bipolar Disorder includes impulsively and risky behaviors.

    About Communication Disorders and Autism Spectrum Disorder, criminal behaviors in Communication Disorders and Autism Spectrum Disorder is mostly related to lack of social skills, not out of maliciousness or sadism.

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    How Movies Help Me Understand and Express Emotions With Alexithymia

    “Why do you do this to yourself?” my husband asks, as he watches me cry during the last episode of my favorite show. I tell him that shows that cause me to cry or feel an extreme emotion are my favorite to watch. If it doesn’t cause me to cry, be angry or laugh it’s not going to be my favorite show. So why do I do this to myself? I’ve always had problems understanding and verbalizing my emotions. Alexithymia describes the inability to observe, identify and describe emotions. When I watch movies or TV shows, especially intense scenes, I am able to understand a bit more about emotions and it helps me understand my own. Movies and TV shows tend to have a lot of cues in them to display the emotion of a character or scene. For example, music, camera angles, dramatic displays of emotion are all things that can help me pick up on emotion. Putting words into emotion is not my strong suit. Even now, I sit here and struggle with the visuals and words that will explain this strange sensation I’m feeling. I know I need to let others know what’s going on with me, yet I sit, with nothing. They look at me, me looking at them, and we’re both wondering what’s going on with me, expecting me to explain an emotion that I can’t quite grasp. Instead, I fill the void with… I don’t know. I’ve learned that I work backwards due to my delayed emotional response. When I don’t know or understand an emotion that is building in me, watching a movie can help me understand it and or move past it. Alexithymia can also cause me to have trouble reading others’ emotions. When watching intense emotional scenes I can take those scenarios into my everyday life and try to match others’ reactions to how a similar scene played out in a show I watched. When I’m having a hard time understanding my emotions I often go through scenarios from movies that I can relate to the situation. I’ll play that back in my mind to help me explain an emotion that I’m trying to convey. These emotional scenes can help me understand the emotions that I can’t quite put into words. For instance, when someone I know and love passes away, it can be hard for me to express an emotion. It gets stuck in my throat begging for a way to my tongue. It can help me to watch a movie or show that has a character’s death in it, because I can finally release that emotion and help me put into words the grief I am feeling. I have favorite movies that I’ll watch that can relate to a situation that I’m not sure how to process. It’s not just any movie or TV show that has an emotional scene that helps me. Usually, the movie has to have characters that I’m invested in and relate to. The music and how the scene is presented, all tie into how I’m able to relate. When a character shows an intense amount of emotion it can often cause me to feel that emotion. If a character that I feel a connection to is displaying an emotion, it can help me relate that scene to a moment in my life and help me understand the feelings that I had. These intense scenes can also help me describe to someone who might be trying to understand why I’m acting a certain way. I’ve spent too much time with guilt that is tied up in my inability to describe my emotions. I now embrace the difficulty and find my own way to express my emotions. Do you have a difficulty expressing and understanding your emotions? What helps you express your feelings?

    Community Voices

    Kaden M (he/they)

    What My 'Quiet Meltdowns' Look Like as a Neurodivergent Adult

    I have meltdowns, but until recently, I didn’t know that was what they were. I do not have a diagnosis of autism, or at least not an official one (common for adult Autistic women; depression, anxiety, and sometimes ADHD is often diagnosed before autism because it often presents in a way that is different than stereotypical “boy” presentation). I bring up autism because this is what is most typically associated with meltdowns. That being said, serious (and sometimes quiet or even silent, elusive, sneaky) meltdowns can occur in individuals with other neurodivergent conditions, especially those that have mental illness too. My meltdowns are not intrinsic to having bipolar, depression, borderline personality disorder, or OCD. Those disorders certainly do exacerbate the meltdowns, but those are more akin to… mental “breakdowns.” Granted, I know things are not so simple. One can have both things happening simultaneously, and they can intertwine and interact, further amplifying the situation and pain the melting down individual experiences. Still with me? I know, I can be rather long-winded in my explanations. My mom says I have a “busy mind.” That might be an understatement! When I was a baby, I didn’t like to eat. I struggled with sleep. I cried a lot and needed to be held by my mother and my mother only. As a kid, I rarely remember getting angry or having full-blown tantrums. What I do remember is having crying fits, anxiety included, when it came to sensory overload, any change or transition — big or small, and not getting my way. Was I spoiled? I had no diagnosis, no treatment for anxiety, ADHD, or sensory issues. I was just “sensitive.” “Emotional.” “Quirky.” “Hyper” and yet “quiet.” My meltdowns as a child were evident, but really only at home. At school, I was a good student, really only ever getting in trouble for talking too much during class, and only needing extra support in math class. I would hold it together all day, with my millions of thoughts and feelings swarming all around me; I struggled to pay attention, listen, and be social in a way that was deemed acceptable. I also masked a lot, leaving me exhausted by the time I got home. And despite that exhaustion, I lay awake at night with insomnia, as well as sleep-walking and talking and weird, unsettling dreams upon falling asleep. I would ask my father to “turn off my brain, please.” Too much mental energy and yet a lack of physical energy. I still relate to this today: the phrase “tired but wired” very much describes me, always has. So yes, as a kid many meltdowns were silent or quiet, but at home, it was mostly crying, whining, mild tics and compulsions while I endured sensory overload and burnout. My meltdowns today are essentially the same. Only differences? I am even better at masking in public and yet even worse at masking at home or during particularly stressful situations or even minor, unexpected changes to my schedule. My meltdowns have become more severe, as at this point they are not just meltdowns relating to sensory overload, social burnout, stress, and change (ADHD, sensory processing disorder, learning disabilities like nonverbal learning disability, Autistic traits); they are intertwined with the workings of my major mental illnesses, such as bipolar disorder, borderline personality disorder, OCD, trauma, etc. My most severe meltdowns occur when I am overloaded by changes to routine, high social expectations (and I even saying this an extrovert, perhaps an “introverted extrovert”), and too many sounds and sights, only worsened by episodes of mania or depression and the extreme thoughts and reactions to rejection and perceived abandonment. From what I’ve read recently, I have learned there is a surprisingly significant overlap between borderline personality disorder (often triggered by childhood trauma, PTSD, C-PTSD) and autism/Autistic traits in adult women. As someone diagnosed with both borderline personality disorder and neurodevelopmental disorders like ADHD, I wonder if this applies to me. This typically means the individual either has both BPD and is Autistic or they are Autistic and BPD was the initial misdiagnosis. Regardless, the label for me isn’t the end-all, be-all, but this does interest me and help me better understand myself. I had a period of bullying in middle school, often subtle, but I now understand that this is what it was. This ongoing trauma (ongoing off/on for three years I suppose) may be what has contributed to my BPD traits. I wonder though if being neurodivergent and possibly Autistic is what led to my susceptibility to being teased and bullied throughout my life. This is a bit of a side tangent, but it all relates regardless. I have always had meltdowns, and today as an adult they are more intense, including the sensory symptoms, further exacerbated by mental illness. I often view myself as “immature” in the way I react to some seemingly “simple” things and changes. This is why finding the neurodivergent community through Instagram, TikTok, Facebook, and The Mighty has helped me so much, to finally see I am not “weird.” I might be “different,” sure, but not less than because of those differences. I was born this way for the most part (my premature birth and low birth may have been contributors, too). So, how do I cope with meltdowns today to avoid possible dangers like self-harm and skin picking (self-harm for me is not only a punishment during depression, but also a sensory equalizer in a sense, but not a healthy one)? I stim in other ways, healthier ways. Stimming often looks like fidgeting. I sensory seek at times by using fidget toys, headphones with white noise, my weighted blanket, touching soft items (including my dogs!) and so forth. I also cope by using my dialectical behavioral skills which involve not only forms of healthy sensory stimming but also distracting with hobbies, changing body temperature, meditation, or changing one’s thoughts through mantras and the use of “wise mind.” I’ve only had a full-time job once so far in my adult life, and it was a struggle because of not only major anxiety, but I now realize, sensory issues and overload as well as my learning disabilities. Meltdowns on the job, sometimes noticeable but often silent, were common. I am learning how to mitigate these moments so that I am able to work going forward. I have improved in my latest part-time job, and so hopefully this will only progress as time passes and I implement skills and safe stimming. I also decided to let go of the shame and stigma that comes with being neurodivergent or mentally ill. I am receiving accommodations in graduate school for my disabilities; I wonder if this is something I can implement in a future job if needed. As I said, I do not have an autism diagnosis, and nor do I know if I would even meet the criteria for one. What I do know is that my many other diagnoses could likely help me receive work accommodations, depending on the nature of the job. I am a 26-year-old neurodivergent individual; as I always say, I am a dog lover and passionate writer, as well as a mental health advocate. I used to write about strictly mental health, but now that I have acknowledged and embraced my neurodivergence, it feels impossible to separate the two, and so I write about both. Do you have meltdowns? Do you stim? How do you cope with life and/or your mind?

    Community Voices


    For people on the autism spectrum that went to college, ehat was your experience like? What did professors do that was helpful and/or unhelpful?#NeurodevelopmentalDisorders

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    Community Voices

    I lack emotional intelligence...

    <p>I lack emotional intelligence...</p>
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    Kala Allen Omeiza

    Why Neurodiversity Inclusion at Universities Benefits Everyone

    My whole life, I always knew I learned differently than most others. I never thought it was bad, just different. I couldn’t study in bright, loud or busy areas, for example, and I knew I could never work in such environments. For months I suspected I was autistic. Getting diagnosed with autism included a five-hour assessment priced at about $100 of total insurance co-payments. Once in grad school, I then had to send my diagnosis to the Disability Services Center here at University of Oxford. I hadn’t disclosed a disability until after term started, so it took about a week or so for the Disability Service to process my request. Once approved, I had an in-person meeting with the service to see how they could best meet my needs. The services were amazingly accommodating and helpful. I informed them of one of my most frustrating classes, where our professor barely engaged and instead let us students lead our class topic. None of us were prepared for the topic prior to the meeting, and I was unable to tell which of my classmates were saying something accurate and which ones were not. I was unable to take accurate notes because of this. Our professor would occasionally nod and go “Oh, interesting” in various tones. It seemed like everyone was able to discern “interesting” as correct, while “interesting!” was incorrect. Or vice versa. I wasn’t sure. After sharing this experience at my Disability Service meeting, I was able to receive a note-taker for some of my classes, and I was even allowed extra time on examinations. I also had the opportunity to be provided with a mentor who would help me improve my study skills, and help me with learning tonal and non-verbal language interpretation for the term. I felt lucky and relieved to have that support. I doubt I would’ve graduated without it. But I can’t help thinking that, like so many autistic Black women, I graduated undergrad without knowing I was autistic, and therefore without the help and support of disability services. In the frustrating class, it was hard not to look around me and wonder if any of my classmates were struggling too. Did they actually need assistance but weren’t able to receive it because they weren’t diagnosed with autism or a learning disability? If so, is it really that hard for profs to just simply say “correct” or “incorrect”? My above reflection is just one mirror on how students with disabilities such as autism can struggle in an academic setting. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) estimates that the developmental disability prevalence in the US is 16%. These developmental disabilities include autism, ADHD, blindness and various other conditions. While disability condition diagnoses make up a significant portion of the workforce, having an inclusive academic environment can be beneficial to not only the intended demographic, but the community at large. While making sufficient academic working conditions conducive for neurodiverse and other communities with disabilities is still underway in several university settings, some universities and other colleges are forging a new path beyond the minimum of providing reasonable accommodation.  The University of Bath in the United Kingdom created an Inclusive Universities Project to conduct focus groups for students with autism to ultimately raise awareness and develop support networks for those with various disabilities and mental health conditions. Some elite business schools around the world have also taken part in the inclusion wave. HEC Paris Business School, Ivey Business School in Canada, and London School of Economics in the United Kingdom have all included recruitment and retainment schemes for those with autism and other neurodiverse conditions. For example, London School of Economics does not penalize spelling and grammar mistakes for neurodiverse students, and allows for 25 minutes of extra time on examinations. HEC Paris currently allows their dyslexic students to request materials on more readable and orientation-centered colored paper. While this is considerable progress, it is imperative that more universities, colleges and their departments emulate inclusive practices as well as create and iterate on better working environments for their students. Current barriers often hinder members of certain communities from receiving official diagnoses. An example of a disability that may have barriers to access a diagnosis is autism. Autism is a developmental disability that affects social interaction, verbal and non-verbal communication. While 1 in 54 youth are diagnosed with autism, diagnosis is four times more common in males than in females — although there is no proof that females have lower rates of autism. Differences in presentation are one reason for this contrast in diagnosis. Even more strikingly, while autism prevalence affects all communities equally, the CDC notes that racial and ethnic minority groups receive a diagnosis significantly less often than their white counterparts. While there are disparities like the above in the U.S. and other Western nations, they are exacerbated in the developing world, where nearly all neurodiverse youth go undiagnosed. My friend and neighbor from my Fulbright endeavor and soon-to-be future classmate, Boluwatife Ikwunne, MD, has the following to say about the lack of autism diagnosis among Nigerians — the largest African demographic to study abroad in the United States. “In Nigeria, autism is often undiagnosed and left unmanaged. This is largely due to poor awareness, a lack of screening tools and unavailable/inaccessible supportive facilities.  A national policy on neurodevelopmental disorders does not exist, meaning that neurodiverse students do not have access to reasonable accommodation facilities or other inclusive measures to aid learning and improve their quality of life.” –Boluwatife Ikwunne, MD/Rhodes Scholar-elect It is clear that universities and colleges need to reflect on the ethnic, racial, gender, and various cultural differences to conclude that simple, low-cost accommodation is the best for undiagnosed students. Without it, many students, especially diverse and international students as Dr. Ikwunne mentioned, may not be able to receive accommodation for a disability simply because they aren’t aware that said disability exists. Presently, one needs an official diagnosis for most disabilities to receive accommodation in academic settings. Often, this approach is used to ensure that students are discouraged from taking advantage of certain accommodations that are necessary for some with disabilities. Receiving extra time on a test when it is unnecessary is an example of such. However, one should consider if autism and similar diagnoses are inaccessible for some communities due to factors such as stigma, cost and time constraints. Given such barriers of access, there are several possible ways universities can accommodate their students with minimal effort and financial cost. It is no secret that most student centers contain large rooms often filled with lots of loud voices and other stimuli that may be overwhelming. In stark contrast, the quieter rooms in such centers are often reserved for studying, with minimal engagement allotted between students. The Neurodiversity Hub states that engaging with students, speaking explicitly, including tailored support services, and limiting the use of bright lights, loud noises, and open-floor planning are simple examples of enabling an inclusive work environment. Creating a diverse array of social and study environments for all personalities and neurotypes in student centers would enable a great first step in being more inclusive. Taken together, academic environments should not solely rely on an official diagnosis to be accommodating in such settings. This is important because environments that are not conducive to a student’s neurotype, health or personality can be detrimental to their stress level or mental health. On top of a new life event such as beginning a new school, declaring a major, moving away from home or away from most previous high school classmates, can all lead to social isolation as well as to serious mental illnesses such as severe depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation. Exacerbated by the pandemic, social isolation and loneliness levels have reached an all-time high, with results that could be catastrophic for a student’s well-being for years to come. In blunt terms, neglecting feasible accommodation could wreak havoc on a student’s academic output, and most importantly, on their well-being for life. Additionally, while not accommodating those with unique needs (or waiting for a formal request to do so) can be detrimental, accommodating these needs can have a positive impact on all. An infamous example is the invention of SMS texts. Finnish inventors  Matti Makkonen et al., originally invented SMS texting to be an alternative to voice conversations for deaf individuals. The use of SMS texting is now ubiquitous as it proved to be efficient for both personal and professional use while also saving their intended company ample bandwidth. Ramps, elevators, and automatic doors are additional classic examples of accommodation to the minority that led to prosperity and convenience for the majority. It’s evident that inclusive school settings lessen stress and decrease extreme mental health challenges. Accommodating those with diverse needs can also have a greater impact on the entire University community at large. A diverse and broad environment that can both incorporate and inspire those with unique needs and personalities can be beneficial to all students. It is time our universities and colleges accommodate diverse needs, and it is time all of us advocate for every community. We can advocate by listening to and creating a platform for those in minority and/or disabled communities to communicate their needs and demands for organizations to implement willingly. Here at Oxford, we have a very accepted Student Disability Committee as part of the Student Union, which spearheads inclusion initiatives while also supporting fellow students through various Facebook groups such as for autistic students at Oxford. We can also use discernment while consuming in order to support companies whose employees feel included and heard in their work environment. All of these small steps can enable a more inclusive and as a result dynamic scholastic environment for neurodiverse and disabled students. To conclude, it may not be necessary to wait for official permission or an urgent need to accommodate those with disabilities. Like administrators simply requesting my aforementioned professor to be more direct for all my classmates, accommodating individuals with various needs is often simple to do. The positive effects on the university community, and ultimately the well-being of their students, can be vast.