Bell's Palsy

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Who Invented Emotions?

Part 2 of 3 sted: love v. hate, joy v. sadness, trust v. disgust, and anticipation v. surprise. Twenty-first-century researchers have since brought the number back down to four: happy, sad, afraid/surprised, angry/disgusted.

This way of thinking assumes that emotions are a psychological category. Before the nineteenth century, bodily sensations were considered transcendental, utilitarian, dangerous, or virtuous. Chinese philosophers called affective states qing, the essence of one’s inner being and the motivator of one’s outer commitment to society. The Stoics saw them as unruly, disruptive passions that had to be controlled by the rational mind. Medieval theologians separated them into positive and negative and interpreted them as indications of a person’s morality. Eighteenth-century theorists continued to divide them into positive and negative: vain and violent passions/appetites versus benevolent and kind affections and sentiments.

The Inventor(s)

You could say, as emotions scholar Thomas Dixon does, that one man invented emotions as a psychological category: the nineteenth-century Scottish Professor of philosophy Thomas Brown. (Not to be confused with Sir Thomas Browne, the physician who authored Religio Medici.) Although others played a part, notably philosopher David Hume and theologian and minister Thomas Chalmers, Brown took the word emotion (a translation of the French émotion, meaning a disturbance of one’s physical state) and used it as an umbrella term to indicate all passions, appetites, affections, and sentiments. Brown died young, at forty-two, in 1820. Best known for his Lectures on the Philosophy of the Human Mind, he was devoted to his work, never marrying or having children.

Others followed, contributing to our understanding of the category called emotion. The nineteenth-century ushered in an emphasis on the face as the loci for emotion. In 1824, the Scottish surgeon and neurologist Charles Bell (#BellsPalsy is named for him) published Essays on The Anatomy and Philosophy of Expression, in which he examined the expressive role of facial muscles. In 1862, the French neurologist Guillaume Duchenne used “electrotherapy” to treat muscular disorders. In the process, he tried to connect facial expressions to their corresponding emotions, publishing his results in Mécanisme de la Physionomie Humaine. In the 1872 illustrated The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, Charles Darwin argued that certain universal emotions exist in humans and even animals: anger, fear, surprise, disgust, happiness, and sadness. But they serve no evolutionary purpose. They don’t, for instance, help us communicate (Is she smiling because she’s happy, fearful, anxious?) or survive (What good is an appeasing smile when running from a lion?).

The 1880s and 1890s brought theoretical arguments as to how, when, and why emotions occur. The James-Lange theory, as it’s known (William James and Charles Lange actually came up with separate theories that have since been conflated), states that emotions come as a result of bodily sensations. (Hence, the smile-and-you’ll-be-happy self-help adage.) Harvard physiologist Walter Bradford Cannon and his doctoral student Phillip Bard came up with the Cannon-Bard theory, which claimed that we experience the stimulating event or situation and the corresponding emotional response simultaneously.

Flash forward to the mid-twentieth century, when the study of emotion had its heyday. The 1960s brought psychologists Richard Lazarus, Stanley Schachter, and Jerome Singer, who focused on the #Relationships between thought and emotion. Paul Ekman argued that emotions aren’t universal but dependent on culture.

The 1990s was, according to President George Bush Senior, “the Decade of the Brain.” It was a time of very expensive research studies, many trying to prove that emotions and the #MentalHealth diagnoses associated with them are located entirely in the brain. The neurobiology of emotion tended to examine so-called negative emotions (e.g., fear, #Anxiety ), speaking of them in terms of brain processes, neural pathways, synaptic transmission, and neurotransmitters like dopamine and serotonin. Despite lots of pretty MRI scans, none of what was theorized was proven. Emotions were and are still conceptual.

The Male Gaze

Much of our understanding of emotions comes from men. One of the few exceptions is Magda B. Arnold. Perhaps unsurprisingly, given that she was a woman, Arnold was undervalued and unappreciated—and still is. In the 1960s, she was the first to propose a complete theory of emotion.

Whereas others focused narrowly on an aspect or two, Arnold examined t


#MotorNeuronDiseases #BellsPalsy

I was just remembering the birth of my daughter and how much of a struggle it was. I had an unexpected bellspalsy and motor condition that brought my baby girl into this world. Having the proper therapy and ongoing therapy up to this day to keep my droopyness away is a constant struggle. But Sometimes good things happen after the storm comes through and strengthens you. Its all for you snugglebug, mommy loves you.
#MotorNeuronDiseases #Anxiety #FacialParalysis



Having to accept im a bells palsy patient because my condition is becoming more noticeable as a young adult (24 now) I can't seem to look at people in the eye anymore and when i get the courage to do so, ill have someone ask omg is ur eye okay? And we're back to square one. My sister told me to not care about the comments but when its everytime i look at someone i only see myself as the problem


Another health issue

Life just keeps getting better....*not*. This week i was at work and thought i was having a stroke. Indigestion, vomiting, rapid heart rate, and the entire left side of my face stopped moving. I go into the ER Tuesday morning and the doctors (who had NO bedside manor whatsoever. I hate going to this er but it's the closest one so oh well) and they tell me I have Bell's Palsy. Which is terrifying since it presents as a stroke. I'm on steroids and antiviral meds but so far nothing is helping. They said it was caused by either a viral infection or the inflammation of a nerve in my face, they have no idea which. They also gave me no timeframe for how long this will last. In the meantime I can hardly eat, can only drink through a straw, can't speak clearly, and my eye wont shut all the way so its burning and dry and blurry all the time. I'm so miserable. This is literally the last thing i needed. Because i cant see and my eyes are burning i havent hardly worked this week. And now I'm at risk of losing my job bc of my health issues. They said if i cant perform the duties of the job (after i literally just got promoted again at the end of october) they'll have to talk to the higher ups and figure out what to do. They have accommodated me (not a lot but a little here and there) but they said that they can't anymore. I'm so afraid I'll lose my job. I applied for disability again so we'll see. And as if i didnt hate my face enough lol now half of it doesnt move. I'm totally miserable and i cant catch a break it seems. Thanks for listening though....
#Depression #healthissues #BellsPalsy #help #Anxiety #Fibromyalgia


The fear in waiting.

I just had an #Endocrinologist appointment that ended with bloodwork. Now I'm in that dreaded stage of waiting. I may have had every single symptom that checked the boxes for an endocrine problem, specifically #CushingsSyndrome , but you know... that's happened before. As someone who has spent their entire teen and current adult life suffering through doctors and their tests, most of them coming back negative, I'm used to this. But this time...I really need to have an answer. An answer with a solution, no more incurable diseases. If its Cushing's, which I hope it is, I'll just get the snip of a benign tumor and return to my typical homeostatic state of #EhlersDanlosSyndrome . I really just need some support during this time, and good vibes I have solid answers instead of "rule outs." #ChronicIllness #ChronicPain #Asthma #HypermobileTypeEDS #IrritableBowelSyndromeIBS #AcidReflux #GastroesophagealRefluxDisease #BellsPalsy #Tachycardia #CheckInWithMe #Undiagnosed


High ANA without a diagnosis / Possible Spinal Leaks

#highana , #Undiagnosed  ,  #highana , #Want  Answers

I was diagnosed with a very high ANA of 380 6 months ago then it came back down to 1:80 ANA again, it keeps fluctuating and I have no solid diagnosis yet. They believe I have Lupus and many other Rheumological diseases. I know for sure I've been diagnosed with CRPS, CIDP, HIGH ANA, SEVERE MYOCLONIC JERKING, PARAPLEGIC, WHEELCHAIR BOUND FOR ALMOST 5 YEARS NOW, BELL'S PALSY, BLURRED RUN WELL VISION, WITH NO HEARING IN LEFT EAR & 50% + HEARING LOSS IN EIGHT EAR, SEVERE DYSPHAGIA, BONEY ENCROACHMENT THROUGHOUT MY BODY AND LEGS, FEET, SPINAL COLUMN, SEVERE MAJOR HEADACHES & MIGRAINES WITH EXTREME PRESSURE & POUNDING THROUGHOUT MY HEAD AND BUZZING, SWOOSHING, RINGING, TICKING THROUGHOUT MY BODY, SEVERE TREMORS AND JERKING, ALONG WITH SEIZURES, BREAST LUMPS WHICH I'M GETTING CHECKED AGAIN, GI ISSUES & SEVERE GERD, Really it's truly too much to describe here. Its been hard but I cope on a daily basis ETC...and many many more diagnosis. It has been a very hard ride but I'm on this trip to find out a true diagnosis and start getting some sort of life back as I do not have one right now. My Rheumotolist states she cannot diagnosis me until I see a major neuro science Cranal and spinal leakages throughout my spine, but it does not answer why I stopped walking and am declining at a rapid pace. Does anyone know anyone who might be dealing with something similar like this. I would give you all my diagnoses but they are too long of a list here. Please help if you have any information possibly. Thank you All so much!! You All are Amazing and I hope you all get some kind of relief as best as possible to what your able to receive. I'll be praying for you All!!


Does anyone have experience with Bell’s Palsy? I have left side facial Bell’s and it’s been going on 4 years. Anything I can do to expedite recovery?

#BellsPalsy #FacialParalysis #TraumaticBrainInjury #CarAccident


Sorry for the long post, kind of an intro, kind of a seeking support, mostly a vent/rant, not really a way to TLDR this though

In my process of trying to get pregnant (3.5years) we went to an infertility specialist, she had me go for some testing, where they found I have a blocked left fallopian tube, and my ovaries had endometriomas. I had been trying for over a decade to get someone to take my period pain seriously and agreed to have them go in remove the endometriosis. They preliminarily deduced that it likely had spread to other organs.

Background: I have 1 runted kidney, scoliosis, lordosis, a bulging L4-5 disk, partially bulging T1-2 and T2-3, chronic unknown cause migraines, bells palsy (initial occurance in May), unknown cause muscle/nerve issues in my left leg, left lower back, and left fore-arm. I am hyper-mobile (31yo and can stick both feet behind my head when my body is not otherwise in pain) and for 2 years I have suspected a connective tissue disorder. my belief is ethler danlos syndrome, for which I got laughed out of the geniology office after missing the test for it by 1 point, and she didn't run any others.

They scheduled my procedure as out patient on the 30th, laprascopic, as would normally be scheduled. With the concern of a connective tissue disorder (my gyno was the first to take that concern seriously) she ordered an echo of my heart to check for aortic problems. They found some minor (like barely detectable) excess fluid on the heart, but nothing else was wrong, my new cardiologist cleared me for surgery.

My surgery went ahead as scheduled Sept 30th, they cleared the endometrioma from my right ovary, the outside of my uterus, the outside of my bladder, and a small bit on my abdominal wall. They did not detect any on my fallopian tubes or GI tract. They drained the endometrioma from the left ovary prepping to remove it at some point, but did not get to removing it because of course, something went wrong.

My left illiac artery developed a tear and started pumping blood into my abdominal cavety. They sliced me open belly button to groin and sutured the tear, the sutures tore, then they got the next set to stick. They closed me up and sent me to recovery. Where they decided to also keep me overnight for observation.

Overnight I developed a thrombosis (clot) and had to be taken for emergency surgery the next day. By mid-day I'm under the knife again. This time they had ambulanced me to the other location for the hospital which had the trauma 1 center with the imaging equipment in the same room as the surgery theater. My father (an anesthesiologist and intensivist) said this single decision probably saved my life.

(see comment for the rest)

#Infertility #Pregnancy #Surgery #Endometriosis #clot #stent #almostdied #NearDeathExperiences #Depression #MentalHealth #Anxiety #frustration #Insomnia #Scoliosis #lordosis #bulgingdiscs #nervepain #BellsPalsy